Oliwa Park, Gdansk

Un giardino alla francese e inglese in Polonia.

Si fa risalire la creazione del parco di Oliwa al Medio Evo, ma non si ha idea di come fosse strutturato prima del 18esimo secolo, quando tre abati si presero cura della proprietà e migliorarono in ere diverse la struttura architettonica, ampliandone l’area. Durante gli scavi si scoprì che il primo insediamento in questa zona risaliva all’inizio dell’età del ferro,  quindi per quello che riguarda l’Europa settentrionale, tra il IX e l’VIII secolo a.C. In seguito, nella tradizione dei monaci cistercensi ( che vi costruirono un monastero poi divenuto centro di una comunità), si parla di questo luogo come del Regno dei Principi di Pomerania, ma non resta traccia dei nomi delle località. I monaci diedero il nome di Oliwa al loro monastero riferendosi al Monte degli Olivi, e la vita e storia del luogo furono strettamente legati allo sviluppo della vita monastica.

Durante l’invasione svedese nel 1627 nelle vicinanze si svolse una battaglia, a cui seguì la Pace di Oliva nel 1660. In seguito, nel 1772, tutto il territorio divenne parte della Prussia: in quel momento gli abitanti di Oliwa erano 500 e occupavano circa 70 abitazioni. Passò anche la dominazione francese, durante la quale Napoleone organizzò un ospedale nell’abbazia, poi la cittadina venne unita a Danzica fino al 1813, quando i russi la conquistarono e ne riorganizzarono, ancora, un ospedale. Trasformata in parrocchia cattolica e unita alle città vicine, subentrò finalmente un periodo di pace, in cui i tre abati si succedettero: dapprima Jacek Rybinski, che creò la parte barocca del parco con un settore dalle tipiche geometrie francesi dei giardini dell’epoca, poi Karl Hohenzollern-Hechingen che sviluppò la parte a nord in stile inglese, e per finire Joseph Hohenzollern-Hechingen che importò piante esotiche e costruì serra e giardino botanico.

Le due ultime guerre mondiali scossero l’Europa intera, e in particolare questa terra, presa d’assalto da tedeschi e russi. Ricordiamo la quasi completa distruzione di Danzica ad opera di forti bombardamenti, ma Oliwa, che ne è sobborgo, fortunatamente non soffrì come la città principale.

Ai giorni nostri Danzica, Sopot e Gdynia fanno parte di un agglomerato chiamato La Tripla Città con un totale di circa 750’000 abitanti nel voivodato della Pomerania.

Oltre al parco, che contiene al suo interno una splendida cattedrale, nella verde oasi di Oliwa potrete visitare uno zoo.

Come arrivare:

  • Aeroport Lech Walesa, Danzica poi circa mezz’ora di auto. L’indirizzo del parco: Opata Jacka Rybinskiego, 80-001 Gdansk – entrata gratuita
  • Da Danzica: tram linea 5, 8 – treno/bus: 117, 143, 199, 227

47 Thoughts to “Oliwa Park, Gdansk”

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      Grazie per il commento.

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